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Table 1 Overview of alternative sources of energy to replace batteries

From: RF power harvesting: a review on designing methodologies and applications

Source Power density Harvesting tech. Advantages Disadvantages
Solar Indoor: 10 µW/cm2
Outdoor: 10 mW/cm2
Photovoltaic High power density
Mature
Not always available
Required exposure to light (not implantable)
Expensive
Vibration Human: 4 µW/cm2
Industrial: 100 µW/cm2
Piezoelectric
Electrostatic
Electromagnetic
Implantable
High efficiency
Not always available
Material physical limitation
Thermal Human: 30 µW/cm2
Industrial: 1–10 mW/cm2
Thermoelectric
Pyroelectric
High power density
Implantable
Not always available
Excess heat
RF GSM: 0.1 µW/cm2
WI-FI: 1 mW/cm2
Antenna Always available
Implantable
Low density
Efficiency inversely proportional to distance