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Table 1 The influence of nanofluid on different solar thermal applications

From: Performance evaluation of nanofluids in solar energy: a review of the recent literature

Author(s) Nanofluid Type of application Observation
Luo et al. [8] TiO2, Al2O3, Ag, Cu, SiO2, graphite, and carbon nanotubes in Texatherm oil DAC solar collector use of nanofluid in the solar collector can improve the outlet temperature and the efficiency
Rahman et al. [9] Cu, Al2O3 and TiO2 in water triangular shape solar collector Results showed 24.28% improvement for Gr=106 at 10% volume fraction of copper particles. the convective heat transfer performance is better when the solid volume fraction is kept at 0.05 or 0.08.
Faizal et al. [10] CuO, SiO2, TiO2 and Al2O3 in water solar collector results confirmed that higher density and lower specific heat of nanofluids offers higher thermal efficiency than water and therefore can reduce the solar collector area about 25.6%, 21.6%, 22.1% and 21.5% for CuO, SiO2, TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluids. Environmental damage cost is also lower with the nanofluid based solar collector
Parvin et al. [11] Cu/water solar collector Increasing the particles concentration raises the fluid viscosity and decreases the Reynolds number and consequently decreases heat transfer. There is a need to find the optimum volume fraction for each application
Ladjevardi et al. [12] Graphite/water solar collector Their numerical results showed that nanofluid collector thermal efficiency increases about 88% compared with the pure water collector with the inlet temperature of 313 K. It also can be increased to 227% with the inlet temperature of 333 K.
Said et al. [15] single wall carbon nanotubes, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 flat plate solar collector It was observed that SWCNTs nanofluids could reduce the entropy generation by 4.34% and enhance the heat transfer coefficient by 15.33%
Saidur et al. [17] Aluminum/water direct absorption solar collector Their results revealed that Aluminum/water nanofluid with 1% volume fraction improves the solar absorption considerably. They found that the effect of particle size on the optical properties of nanofluid is minimal, but in order to have Rayleigh scattering the size of nanoparticles should be less than 20 nm. They also found that the extinction coefficient is linearly proportionate to volume fraction
Sokhansefat et al. [18] Al2O3/synthetic oil parabolic trough collector tube Nanofluid enhanced convective heat transfer coefficient.
Hordy et al. [21] multi-walled carbon nanotubes/water ethylene glycol, propylene glycol solar collector quantitative demonstration of the high temperature and long-term stability of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol-based MWCNT nanofluids for solar thermal collectors
Said et al. [22] Al2O3, water, ethylene glycol Solar collector Their results showed that nanofluids pressure drop at a low concentration flowing in a solar collector is slightly higher than the base fluid.
Liu et al. [23] Grapheme/ ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate solar collectors They observed 15.2%-22.9% enhancement in thermal conductivity using 0.06% volume graphene in the temperature range from 25 to 200°C. Their results showed that GE is a better nanoadditive for nanofluids than other carbon materials and metal nanoparticles
Ho et al. [24] Alumina/ doped molten Hitec concentrating solar power systems The addition of less than 2% Al2O3 nanoparticles significantly increases the specific heat of Hitec metal at low temperatures
Singh et al. [25] Cu/Therminol 59 (TH59) and Therminol 66 (TH66)   They stated that surfactant selection has an important role in preparing stable nanofluids. Choosing the right surfactant is mainly dependent on the properties of the base fluids and particles
Yousefi et al. [29] MWCNT/water flat plate solar collector They found that increasing or decreasing the pH with respect to the pH of the isoelectric point (IEP) would enhance the positive effect of nanofluids on the efficiency of the solar collector
Sardarabadi et al. [30] SiO2/water PV/T Thermal efficiency of the PV/T collector for the two cases of 1 and 3 wt% of silica/water nanofluid increased 7.6% and 12.8%, respectively.
Kabeel et al. [32] Cu/water water desalination unit the water cost can be decreased from 16.43 to 11.68 $/m3 at ϕ=5%
Kabeel et al. [33] Al2O3/water solar still using nanofluids improves the solar still water productivity by about 116% and 76% with and without operating the vacuum fan
Al-Nimr et al. [34] silver-water shallow solar pond energy stored in the nanofluid pond is about 216% more than the energy stored in the brine pond
Liu et al. [35] CuO/water   maximum and mean values of the collecting efficiency of the collector with open thermosyphon using nanofluids increased 6.6% and 12.4%, respectively.